S2. Peptide hormones, growth factors, related substances, and mimetics
The following substances, and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s), are prohibited:
1. Erythropoietin-Receptor agonists:
1.1 Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) including e.g.
EPO-mimetic peptides (EMP), e.g. CNTO 530 and peginesatide;
GATA inhibitors, e.g. K-11706;
Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA);
Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) inhibitors, e.g. sotatercept, luspatercept;
1.2 Non-erythropoietic EPO-Receptor agonists, e.g.
2. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, e.g. cobalt, molidustat and roxadustat (FG-4592); and HIF activators, e.g. argon and xenon.
3. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and their releasing factors, e.g. buserelin, gonadorelin and leuprorelin, in males.
4. Corticotrophins and their releasing factors, e.g. corticorelin.
5. Growth Hormone (GH) and its releasing factors including:
- Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) and its analogues, e.g. CJC-1295, sermorelin and tesamorelin;
- Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHS), e.g. ghrelin and ghrelin mimetics, e.g. anamorelin and ipamorelin;
- GH-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs), e.g. alexamorelin, GHRP-6, hexarelin, and pralmorelin (GHRP-2).
Additional prohibited growth factors:
- Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs);
- Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF);
- Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and its analogues;
- Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs);
- Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF);
- Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and any other growth factor affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein synthesis/degradation, vascularisation, energy utilization, regenerative capacity, or fibre type switching.